The information contained in these pages is based on the authors' own work on the Auchenorrhyncha (Fulgoroidea and Cicadelloidea) of Australia (Fletcher) and New Zealand (Larivière) and on published work on Auchenorrhyncha by a multitude of authors.
Some of the photographs were taken with a Pentax ME Super camera mounted on a Zeiss STEMI SV8 Stereomicroscope with Kodak Ektachrome 64T Professional slide film. These were then scanned with a Nikon Coolscan slide scanner and digitally enhanced using Photoshop 5.0.
More recently photos have been taken with an Agfa ePhoto 1680 digital camera through the same microscope, downloaded using PhotoWise and enhanced as necessary using Photoshop 5.5 or Photoshop CS.
Some larger insects have been scanned directly from the mounted specimen by a Hewlett-Packard Scanjet ADF at 1200dpi, then reduced to 300dpi after enhancing in Photoshop.
Australia, in the context of these pages, is taken to include all States and Territories, including off-shore dependencies such as Norfolk, Christmas and Cocos Keeling islands. Distribution given is based on these States, Territories and dependencies.
In these pages distributions of species between the various zoogeographical components of the New Zealand subregion have not been defined. Such information is available via the Landcare Research website.
The New Guinea / Indonesian checklists include New Guinea and those parts of Indonesia which lie east of the Wallace Line which runs between Bali and Lombok and between Borneo and Sulawesi.
Examination of male genitalia is necessary to separate some of the tribes, particularly in the Deltocephalinae. It is also an essential requirement for reliable identification to species for leafhoppers and planthoppers.
In order to do this, the apex of
the abdomen, or preferably the whole abdomen, is carefully removed and
heated in 10% KOH* (Potassium hydroxide, caustic potash) for a varying period of time depending
on the size and degree of sclerotisation of the genital capsule. This process,
known as maceration, removes the muscle and soft connective tissue and
leaves the abdomen sufficiently transparent to see the internal structures.
Take care not to heat the genitalia for too long since this will result
in the genitalia becoming too transparent to see.
*Take great care in using KOH because, even at 10%, it is corrosive and will cause burns if it contacts your skin. Avoid contact with the skin and avoid breathing the vapour.
Once cleared, the genitalia are removed from the KOH and washed thoroughly at least twice in distilled water to ensure that all traces of the KOH are removed. The genitalia are then transferred to 70% ethanol for examination and eventually into a small rubber-topped plastic tube of glycerine for storage. The pin on which the rest of the specimen is mounted should be passed through the rubber top so that the macerated genitalia and the specimen from which they came are not separated in the collection.